In-country logistics is a supply chain link encompassing goods clearance, warehousing, storage and inventory management, inland transportation and distribution, supply tracking, and the monitoring and evaluation of the medicines, devices and equipment after they have reached a country’s port-of-entry. Due to the temperature sensitivity of e.g. vaccines, effective cold chains must be established from the point of dispatch by vaccine manufacturer to the point of receipt and inspection by the end user, to ensure that the vaccine remains effective and safe, and to prevent its damage or loss. Poorly performing cold chains can lead to irreversible loss of vaccine, reduced efficacy or adverse effects following immunization. To ensure equitable access to essential medicines, ensuring efficient and effective in-country logistics is essential. However, this is often the most underestimated and challenging element of the supply chain.